I will now answer my own question! I got the refurbished A50s. Early impressions: maybe heavier overall than the Sony Wireless Gold headset, but considerably comfortable on my ears.
The sound is better, and it definitely has a lot more bass. On the "media" EQ setting I'd say way too much bass, and maybe too heavy on the regular setting to, but that could also just be my reaction since the Sony set is decidedly weak in the bass department.
I couldn't get a really objective comparison of the actual surround effect or accuracy; the A50s seem great, but I never had any problem with the Sony set either. I also don't know what my sound is like for other people—I have no idea how the mics compare.
The headset controls are a lot more intuitive than the Sony set. On the Sony Wireless Gold, there's a pair of volume up/down buttons, a pair of chat/game audio balance buttons, a mute button, and a button that cycles through surround EQ presets. They're all just buttons. It took me a while to remember which was which, there's no tactile difference other than knowing where on the headset they are. I'm still not positive which button was mute.
On the A50s, there's a dial for volume, the chat/game audio balance is sort of the entire shell of the right headphone on a rocker switch, the EQ selector is a slider with three positions, and the mute is triggered by swinging the mic up. This is much easier to understand and get used to, especially the mute. Other than the discomfort of the Sonys, which some people may not have a problem with, this is my favorite improvement.
However, the A50s have one pretty big caveat for their overall experience, and that's the time you might have to spend adjusting PS4/receiver settings every time you want to play. They plug into the optical port on the back of the PS4. There's a passthrough on the base, so if your setup already uses the optical port, this probably isn't an issue, but I suspect most people are just using the HDMI for video and audio these days. The PS4 will output audio to both at once, but it will only output a 5.1 signal to one or the other, whichever you designate "primary". So every time I switch between the headphones and the speakers, I have to go toggle this setting on the PS4 dash. Plus, I have to turn my receiver all the way down, because it still gets the stereo audio signal from the HDMI port (just muting it leaves the world MUTE on screen the whole time).
I realize this is a tradeoff, and the flip side is the versatility of being able to use the A50s with a lot of different systems. And if you only ever want to use your headphones, this isn't in issue at all. But if you're switching back and forth, the simplicity of the Sony Gold Wireless really shines. You just turn on the headphones and the audio switches over to them entirely*, turn them off and you're back to the sound coming out of the receiver. So again, this has nothing to do Shieldwolf's question, but for anyone else, the A50s are definitely higher quality, easier to use (based on button design), but the Sonys might be fine for someone looking for just occasional headset use because you don't have to fuss with settings.
Otherwise, I'd say the price difference is reflected in the quality (Sony Wireless Gold retails $99, but every couple months you can find them for $69, A50s retail for $300, but you can get the refurbs like I did for $180, no complaints about going that route yet).
*technically you could also run just the chat to the headphones and the game audio to your receiver with both of these headphones, but they're both closed over-the-ear headsets, so that doesn't seem like it would ever be the best setup.