It isn’t cyclical.
Early Sunni scholars used a process called ijtihad to answer questions not explicitly addressed by the Khoran. While it required a firm understanding of Islam and Islamic law it allowed the faithful a certain degree of flexibility - it allowed them to adapt to the realities of a changing world and answer questions that would never have occurred to earlier thinkers. The metaphorical gates of ijtihad closed after just four centuries though, eliminating that avenue of internal reform. In closing the gates, scholars declared that all questions had been answered and that Islam was (in effect) an unchanging faith. This explains why the devout continue to look back to the early periods for answers, they have been taught from an early age that this is the only acceptable means of religious scholarship and the only way of understanding the world around them.
Until the gates reopen, (Sunni) Islam will continue to look backwards for answers and it will remain rooted in that austere and often brutal past.