Thanks to a helpful Redditor I was able to reset my busted progression-blocking quest, so won’t need to start a new game this weekend! Weeee!
In case any one else needs to reset a quest, the game lets you do this when you get far enough away from the quest target.
Easy way is to summon the Anomaly and use it’s portal to teleport to another player’s base. This should be far enough away that the quest can be reset.
Then teleport back, either from the teleporter if there is one or take off and summon Anomaly again. Reset the quest again when you arrive home and you’re good to go!
edit: keep in mind that some people report that using the Anomaly portal deletes their base and freighter, so do a manual save or backup first.