So being over wordy is a problem, so stop me if I ramble.
The historic origins of the Jews has long been an issue, but most scholarship on this topic was Biblical Scholarship, which assumed the data in the Bible to be more or less true, and then went hunting and pecking for correspondence in the real world. This is the kind of theorizing that says that Moses is an Egyptian name, that perhaps Akhenaten instituted the first cult of Monotheism, that the Hyksos were possible the original Jews, that (less plausibly), geological or hydraulical or aeolian phenomenon could “explain” the parting of the Red Sea. All of which assumes that the Jews came from Egypt originally.
The “problem” of the bronze age collapse is that there’s no mention of it in the Bible. Like, at all. Aside from all the obvious mythmaking quilting going on (like with Noah) from Mesopotamian stories later, it’s a problem in that it seems like the Jews had no knowledge of the collapse of the Bronze Age. This seems to indicate their memories of that period of time (~1200 BC) to be so incomplete that there’s little to no reliable detail in their collective memory. But is there any details about anything from that period that make historic sense?
It’s very odd there’s any association with Egypt at all. If the Jews didn’t come from Egypt why mention Egypt? By the time the Jews were writing about Egypt in the 6th C. BC it was a decrepit empire well past it’s prime and increasingly dominated by its neighbors. It’s a strange addition that also makes little sense narratively - basically stuff happens in a couple of lines and now we’re all slaves to the Pharaoh. Obviously this was some kind of parable about the Babylonian Captivity (look, it happened before), but that doesn’t answer why Egypt instead of any other neighboring kingdom.
There’s also the matter of Jericho - recent archeology has shown that Jericho was a real place, but, we’re told, there’s no evidence of a conquest around the time that the Jews supposedly “invaded”.
There’s also the more complicated matter of what, exactly, these Jews believed, if anything recognizable at all. 9th Century and 8th C. Jews / Hebrews made inscriptions very much like Babylonians and the elevation of Marduk to a central deity - there’s references to Yahweh of the Plains and Yahweh of the Rivers and Yahweh of the Hills, ect. It makes you wonder if however there is some memory of being a settled people that were driven out into the desert to become nomads again, exiled as it were, but continued to carry around some cult artifacts of their deity, whatever or whoever that was, until such a time as they could reestablish a temple-city in the Mesopotamian / Semitic fashion. I could go on about the association in Mesopotamia with the fetish statue and the god, to the point where they are indistinguishable - Mesopotamian polities would knock heads and “steal” gods for a good 50 or 100 years before the offended city got the band back together and won a good scrum against some Elamites or Assyrians and “got their god back”. Not to mention the literal feeding and dressing of the gods as if they were alive, and the temple as palace, ect. Having “lost” their god statue, did the predecessors of the Jews “keep the faith” with their deity that had no temple or statue?
But very recent archaeology in Israel and Jordan has reminded us that Egypt did rule the Levant for hundreds of years, during the time of the Hittites and Kassites. It’s also clear that Egypt withdrew from the area after the titanic geopolitical events that led to the collapse of the Eastern Med palace economies. It’s also clear that the Peleset are the Philistines, and the Philistines have some Mycenean cultural elements. Also, Egypt did not manage the Levant very well, and the condition of the cities there were poor and not impressive. When the collapse hit, what you see a hundred years later is a massive increase in small settlements across the Negev and Jordan river valley (Judean hills), areas that were of marginal value to settled agriculturalists but could act as a “refuge” for people fleeing the coasts, and/or footholds from people moving in from the east. (You see both in Greece and in Crete movements away from the coasts and into the hills after the invasion of the Sea People era).
So there’s a new theory that basically the Jewish people have always been in Israel - there was no immigration, or at least nothing like a tribal confederation moving into hostile territory, and that the memory of leaving “Egypt” and being forced to “wander” the desert before “returning” is effectively a garbled memory of the Levant once being Egyptian, being driven away from the coasts during the collapse, and then moving back into the coasts hundreds of years later, encountering cultural Philistines as they did. There’s also some theories that genetically the Jewish peoples and the Philistines were far more similar than not.