More quality of life mods recommended even for first-time players:
Quality Builder: makes it so objects with a "quality" rating are assigned to your builder with the highest construction stat, which means you can assign multiple builders without worrying about making sure the best one builds furniture and such.
Raindrops No Longer Fall on my Head: increases the priority builders attach to roofs, which for some reason otherwise often go unbuilt and then your batteries get rained on and explode....
Map Reroll: adds buttons to reroll the map or reroll just the geysers, at a small cost in terms of the mineral deposits on the next map.
And two mods which reduce difficulty slightly and probably ought not be used on first playthrough:
Prepare Carefully: lets you edit your colonists using a points system when preparing a new game. For when you get tired of rerolling them over and over and over.
Efficient Light: reduces the wattage of standard lamps from 100 to 25.